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Леонид Андреев. Непридуманные рассказы о животных

Real Sories About Pets Cover Small
Непридуманные рассказы о животных
Автор: Леонид Андреев
Цена $ 5.21
 ePub (eReader)

Рассказы о поведении, психике и интеллекте домашних животных

Часто можно слышать от людей, что животным не свойственна рассудочная деятельность. В книге
приведено более полусотни рассказов из жизни собак и кошек, в которых доказывается обратное.




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English translation of my 1984 paper on the origin of life on Earth. Part III

View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution. PART III

Leonid Andreev


Part II: https://systemity.livejournal.com/4661607.html

Original paper "View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution" published in: Voprosy Evolutsii Bakterij (Evolution of Bacteria), USSR Academy of Sciences, Center for Biological Research, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino, 1984, pp. 93-119 (https://www.dropbox.com/s/tx666ilga018yvt/OriginOfLifeRus.pdf).
This translation was first published in 2004 on the company website of Equicom, Inc. which is no longer online.

Macromolecular chronometry

It would seem that this logical deadlock could be resolved by comprehensive investigation of regularities in the evolution of those macromolecules which perform same functions in evolutionarily distant contemporary organisms. With the fundamental capabilities created by molecular biology methods, it is possible now not only to investigate evolutionary relations between various organisms but also to estimate a relative time point of their divergence, i.e. evolutionary distances. The idea of the “molecular evolutionary clock” was first proposed by Zuckerkandl and Pauling [34] in 1965. It is based on the fact of existence of a great variety of macromolecules that, having different sequences of monomers, are capable of performing same functions. Consequently, mutational changes in proteins and nucleic acids can provide a measure of the evolution time. Woese [33] recently made a detailed analysis of the results obtained with the use of the molecular chronometry method and discussed the ways for further improvement of the method and overcoming its limitations.

For instance, one of the major limitations of the method is caused by the fact that the relative speed of homologous macromolecular clocks can be different in different organisms. Also, in bacteria, an intensive interspecies transfer of genes with totally different evolutionary backgrounds may contribute into different genealogy of macromolecules of one and the same organism. Both of those limitations can be resolved in one or another way. For instance, it was shown that the use of two independent molecular clocks – cytochrome c and ribosomal RNA – provided consistent data on purple synthesizing bacteria [22]. Phylogenetic structures based on molecular chronometry studies [25, 29] attract a lot of interest in biologists of various areas of specialization, and there is a hope that this method can help to develop objective criteria for evaluation of evolutionary relations between various groups of organisms. Nonetheless, the areas in which molecular chronometry is either ineffective or insufficiently effective include, first and foremost, the issues of prebiotic evolution, emergence of life and the functioning of early life forms. It is also important  to realize that the discovery of the paths of evolution of life on Earth is not an answer to the question about the reasons for the choice of those paths.


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English translation of my 1984 paper on the origin of life on Earth. Part II

View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution. PART II

Leonid Andreev


Part III: https://systemity.livejournal.com/4661963.html
Part I: https://systemity.livejournal.com/4661364.html


Original paper "View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution" published in: Voprosy Evolutsii Bakterij (Evolution of Bacteria), USSR Academy of Sciences, Center for Biological Research, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino, 1984, pp. 93-119 (https://www.dropbox.com/s/tx666ilga018yvt/OriginOfLifeRus.pdf).
This translation was first published in 2004 on the company website of Equicom, Inc. which is no longer online.

Enzymes and coenzymes

The membrane system of prokaryotic organisms lacks an expressed anatomic compartmentalization of membrane enzymatic processes, which is the key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The prokaryotic type of membrane system organization causes tremendous difficulties for the cellular level regulation of the membrane enzymatic processes which involve same coenzymes. Strangely, this peculiarity of bacteria has been getting very little attention [3]. Based on molecular weights of the most widely distributed coenzymes that supply membrane-immobilized enzymes of small reacting molecules, such as protons, C1- and C2- compounds, etc., it can be easily established, by the Einstein diffusion equation, that  at physiological temperatures, those enzymes cover within a second the distances that several times exceed the length of a bacterial cell. Knowing that, it is hard to understand, for instance, the secrets of coordination of the activity of dozens of types of enzymes, whose functioning requires  pyridine nucleotide carriers in specific concentrations strictly determined by a current physiological state of the cells.

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English translation of my 1984 paper on the origin of life on Earth. Part I

View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution* PART I

Leonid Andreev


Part II: https://systemity.livejournal.com/4661607.html

Original paper "View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution" published in: Voprosy Evolutsii Bakterij (Evolution of Bacteria), USSR Academy of Sciences, Center for Biological Research, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino, 1984, pp. 93-119 (https://www.dropbox.com/s/tx666ilga018yvt/OriginOfLifeRus.pdf).
This translation was first published in 2004 on the company website of Equicom, Inc. which is no longer online.

Contents:

• Specificity of lipids as an object of molecular biological studies
• Cellular level of lipid studies
• The concept of polylipids
• Interaction between polylipids and proteins
• Role of fatty acid residues
• Enzymes and coenzymes
• Principle of quasi-equilibrium of biosynthesis of bacterial lipids
• On the origin of life on Earth
• Macromolecular chronometry
• Molecular model of a protobiont
• Conclusions


Specificity of lipids as an object of molecular biological studies

Modern molecular biology incorporates a number of research areas dealing with substances and processes of general biological significance. Those areas of research, stimulated and inspired by the efficacy of the currently available physico-chemical methods, considerably differ in methodologies and – what is especially important – due to their specific developmental backgrounds, they have different levels of relationship with cellular biology.

When that relationship is lost or is not yet strong enough, it is often understood as an indication that some of the problems of physical chemistry of bioorganic molecules may be as broad and complex as the issues encountered with in the study of the functioning of live cells. This concerns particularly investigations of biological macromolecules that are functionally active outside the cells that synthesize them. That kind of misconception is not accidental. The awareness of the fact that, despite a theoretically possible large variety of structural and functional organizations of biopolymers, the Nature has only a limited number of their variants, impedes the advance of researchers in physics and chemistry of the functionality of such molecules, as it makes them divert to working on problems which require qualitatively different approaches and expertise and force them to study such properties of organisms which require deep empirical knowledge. This is a psychological reason that explains why many molecular biologists at least sympathize with, if not fully concede to, the thesis that the notion of ‘cell’ “has become a brake on the progress toward the understanding of live structures at the molecular level” and that “one may stop treating the cell as a biological unit but consider it as merely one of the stages of a complex chain of transformations” [16]*.

In practice, such views may seem to be justified as the attempts not to limit oneself to the “barest necessities” of evolutionary biology and “biological purposefulness” and, instead, consider the cell to be “merely one of the stages of a complex chain of transformations” may often be helpful in extensive fundamental investigations in molecular biology, leading to innovative approaches to various aspects of the functioning, systematics and evolution of live organisms. A classical example of such fundamental works in molecular biology that already by now have significantly contributed into the progress in evolutionary biology, is the method of macromolecular chronometry developed a quarter of a century ago [34] based on physico-chemical, rather than biological, logic.

_________________________________________________________
* Rendition is based on the Russian edition of the source book.


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Origin of Life: Molecular Model of a Protobiont

Origin of Life: Molecular Model of a Protobiont

Leonid Andreev


Original paper "View on Lipids of Microorganisms from the Standpoint of Prebiotic and Biological Evolution" published in: Voprosy Evolutsii Bakterij (Evolution of Bacteria), USSR Academy of Sciences, Center for Biological Research, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Pushchino, 1984, pp. 93-119 (https://www.dropbox.com/s/tx666ilga018yvt/OriginOfLifeRus.pdf).

This paper was first published in 2004 on the company website of Equicom, Inc. which is no longer online

Origin of life on Earth has yet to find its own paradigm, and this fact overshadows the capabilities of contemporary science, although in reality it is well equipped for solving this problem. It is generally believed that the main cause of this predicament is the lack of material evidence that could provide a clue about the events that some four billion years ago had the life get started amidst the inorganic matter. Proceeding from that premise is a methodological deadlock: how to define the borderline between the non-life and the start of life – i.e. at what point in retrospect does the trail of evidence stop? If we take the most remarkable biological property inherent in all contemporary forms of life – reproduction – and try to trace it back so as to pinpoint its inception in the earliest forms of the living matter, we have to start with the emergence of the replication mechanism. But first there had to emerge something that was worth of replication.

Due to the lack of agreement on what can be qualified as a primordial sign of life, researchers in the origin of life have undertaken investigations on all probable and improbable leads, including anything of at least remote relevance to biosynthesis of molecules involved in contemporary organisms: synthesis of amino acids from simple  inorganic molecules, catalytic properties of clay minerals, spontaneous formation of membrane-like structures, etc., up to ideas about spontaneously emerging DNA and RNA, which, in the opinion of the idea’s authors, should have resulted in miraculous appearance of biologically purposeful structures. All of such theories are based on presumption of spontaneity of transformation of nonliving matter into living matter. Essentially, all things considered, the difference between evolutionism and creationism is nothing but the extent of passion about the object of faith; and, on the scale of integrity and logic consistency, the science-wealthy evolutionism married to mysticism stands lower than creationism.

Twenty years ago, I published a paper explaining my hypothesis of the origin of life on Earth and presenting a molecular model of a protobiont, a hypothetical earliest ancestor of the biological cell. The paper was published in a collection of articles on evolution of bacteria, by the Center for Biological Research in Pushchino of the then USSR Academy of Sciences. Recently, having stumbled upon a few research papers dealing with the problem of the origin of life on Earth, I went on to see what has changed in general in this field within the past twenty years and have found out that there was nothing new. This has been a good stimulus for me to finally get to translate my 1984 paper into English and post it on this web site. Back then, I had every reason to muse on the role of lipids in the functioning of live organisms. Due to my years-long work in express
identification of bacteria, I had had an opportunity to investigate the fatty acid (and occasionally phospholipid) composition of over 33,000 strains of bacteria.


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cactus

Что такое жизнь и как она возникла?

Оглавление:
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Предисловие. II-2. Время возвращаться назад

В этой книге речь пойдёт о том, как возникла жизнь на Земле. Книга посвящена этому самому сложному и таинственному из всех явлений, с которыми когда-либо сталкивался разум человеческий. Природа этого явления не могла не интересовать людей с самого начала их появления на Земле, природа этого явления остаётся такой же сложной и таинственной и в наше время на высшей стадии развития науки и техники. По указанной причине эта книга должна быть интересна любому человеку вне зависимости от уровня его образования, от его мировоззрения, социального положения и профессиональной специализации.
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Психи

В своей теории психоиммунитета (https://systemity.livejournal.com/2707831.html, https://systemity.livejournal.com/2722292.html, https://systemity.livejournal.com/2761827.html , https://systemity.livejournal.com/5685266.html) я доказываю, что деление на психическую норму и психопатологию, на чём базируются современная психиатрия и психология, является ярким примером непонимания того, как функционирует человеческое (и не только) сознание. Психопатология в той или иной степени свойственна всем людям и начинает сопровождать человеческую психику с самого начала появления человека на свет божий. Патология зарождается в основном в детстве, а в онтогенезе человека она только лишь матереет. Граница между психической нормой и психопатологией - количественная, условная, определяющаяся комплексом социальных установок и рядом качественных проявлений, которые лишь на определённых стадиях развития человека становятся очевидными. В отсутствие этих проявлений неизлечимые психи, радикально влияющие на судьбу ближайшего окружения, идентифицируются обычно как люди с оригинальными особенностями характера. Правда, нужно отметить, что такие латентные неизлечимые психи считают психами многих относительно нормальных людей, с которыми вынуждены тесно контактировать, и эта их особенность является ярким проявлением их неизлечимости.


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Она мне очень доверяет

Две мои собачки тут же съедают всё, что им дают, а третья - Лиля - ест только по настроению. Никогда не знаешь, съест она то, что ей дают или в данный момент она не расположена к освоению предложенного. Но Лиля - собачка необыкновенно хозяйственная, со жлобскими наклонностями. Она так себя поставила в собачьем коллективе, что никто не позволит себе притронутся к еде, которая предназначалась для Лили. Даже если она уйдёт в другие комнаты. Лиля это знает. Иногда она начинает тихо рычать, когда кто-то из собак не может оторвать взгляда от лилиной порции еды. Но для верности всем, что она не расположена в данный момент съесть, она старательно набивает свой ротик, идёт в спальню и складывает на моей подушке. Она мне очень доверяет и знает, что я её имущество не сворую. Когда я иду в постель, то мне приходится собирать со своей подушки кусочки сосиски, кусочки охотничьей колбасы, кусочки печенья, кусочки сыра, сырое мясо, жаренную лососину... Рядом с моей подушкой на кровати лежит персональная лилина подушка, но она своё несъеденное добро складывает не на своей подушке, а на моей, поскольку это ей кажется намного более надёжным. Ночью Лиля периодически просыпается и осваивает отложенное добро. Очень Лиля хозяйственная. И мне кажется, что я на неё чем-то похож...


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Закон сохранения души

Ещё покойный Ломоносов говаривал: "Если в одном месте что-то убудет, то в другом прибавится". Вообще-то законов сохранения много: энергии, импульса, массы, электрического заряда, лептонного числа, барионного числа, чётности... А вот закон сохранения души никто так и не открыл. Ведь через каждого из нас проходит множество людей и многим из них мы жертвуем часть своей души, а если уж очень повезёт, то и всю душу. Причём женщины, которые живут дольше мужчин, жертвуют намного больше своей души, чем мужчины. Но очень странно, что, несмотря на эти постоянные жертвы, качество и объём души у душевных людей не только не уменьшается, а даже наоборот - растёт...